Searching across hundreds of databases

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Immune checkpoint proteins: exploring their therapeutic potential to regulate atherosclerosis.

The immune system provides a large variety of immune checkpoint proteins, which involve both costimulatory and inhibitory proteins. Costimulatory proteins can promote cell survival, cell cycle progression and differentiation to effector and memory cells, whereas inhibitory proteins terminate these processes to halt ongoing inflammation. Immune checkpoint proteins play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis by regulating the activation and proliferation of various immune and non-immune cells, such as T-cells, macrophages and platelets. Upon activation within the atherosclerotic lesions or in secondary lymphoid organs, these cells produce large amounts of pro-atherogenic cytokines that contribute to the growth and destabilization of lesions, which can result in rupture of the lesion causing acute coronary syndromes, such as a myocardial infarction. Given the presence and regulatory capacity of immune checkpoint proteins in the circulation and atherosclerotic lesions of cardiovascular patients, modulation of these proteins by, for example, the use of monoclonal antibodies, offers unique opportunities to regulate pro-inflammatory immune responses in atherosclerosis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances on the role of immune checkpoint proteins, such as OX40-OX40L, CTLA-4 and TIM proteins, in atherosclerosis and discuss their therapeutic potential as promising immunotherapies to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Targeting Inflammation to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.22/issuetoc and http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bcp.v82.4/issuetoc.

Pubmed ID: 28369782 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Antigens, CD | Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte | Atherosclerosis | Humans | Membrane Proteins

Publication data is provided by the National Library of Medicine ® and PubMed ®. Data is retrieved from PubMed ® on a weekly schedule. For terms and conditions see the National Library of Medicine Terms and Conditions.

This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.


IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology

Portal and searchable database of pharmacological information. Information is presented at two levels, the initial view or landing pages for each target family provide expert-curated overviews of the key properties and the available selective ligands and tool compounds. For selected targets, more detailed introductory chapters for each family are available along with curated information on the pharmacological, physiological, structural, genetic and pathophysiogical properties of each target.

tool

View all literature mentions