p27Kip1 (p27) is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor and negative regulator of cell proliferation. p27 also controls other cellular processes including migration and cytoplasmic p27 can act as an oncogene. Furthermore, cytoplasmic p27 promotes invasion and metastasis, in part by promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Herein, we find that p27 promotes cell invasion by binding to and regulating the activity of Cortactin, a critical regulator of invadopodia formation. p27 localizes to invadopodia and limits their number and activity. p27 promotes the interaction of Cortactin with PAK1. In turn, PAK1 promotes invadopodia turnover by phosphorylating Cortactin, and expression of Cortactin mutants for PAK-targeted sites abolishes p27's effect on invadopodia dynamics. Thus, in absence of p27, cells exhibit increased invadopodia stability due to impaired PAK1-Cortactin interaction, but their invasive capacity is reduced compared to wild-type cells. Overall, we find that p27 directly promotes cell invasion by facilitating invadopodia turnover via the Rac1/PAK1/Cortactin pathway.
Pubmed ID: 28287395 RIS Download
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A second-generation retrovirus producer lines for the generation of helper free ecotropic and amphotropic retroviruses. The lines are based on the 293T cell line (a human embryonic kidney line transformed with adenovirus E1a and carrying a temperature sensitive T antigen co-selected with neomycin). The unique feature of this cell line is that it is highly transfectable with either calcium phosphate mediated transfection or lipid-based transfection protocols-- up to 50% or higher of cells can be transiently transfected. The lines were created by placing into 293T cells constructs capable of producing gag-pol, and envelope protein for ecotropic and amphotropic viruses. The lines offered advantages over previous stable systems in that virus can be produced in just a few days. Academic and non-profit laboratories may obtain the Phoenix cells from either Allele Biotechnology or the National Gene Vector Bank. The vectors may be obtained from Addgene. They are no longer distributing these reagents from the lab.
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