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Long-term intravital imaging of the multicolor-coded tumor microenvironment during combination immunotherapy.

eLife | Nov 18, 2016

The combined-immunotherapy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) is one of the most efficient treatments for melanoma patients. However, no synergistic effects of CTX and ACT on the spatio-temporal dynamics of immunocytes in vivo have been described. Here, we visualized key cell events in immunotherapy-elicited immunoreactions in a multicolor-coded tumor microenvironment, and then established an optimal strategy of metronomic combined-immunotherapy to enhance anti-tumor efficacy. Intravital imaging data indicated that regulatory T cells formed an 'immunosuppressive ring' around a solid tumor. The CTX-ACT combined-treatment elicited synergistic immunoreactions in tumor areas, which included relieving the immune suppression, triggering the transient activation of endogenous tumor-infiltrating immunocytes, increasing the accumulation of adoptive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and accelerating the infiltration of dendritic cells. These insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of immunocytes are beneficial for optimizing immunotherapy and provide new approaches for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the involvement of immunocytes in cancer immunotherapy.

Pubmed ID: 27855783 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Adoptive Transfer | Animals | Combined Modality Therapy | Cyclophosphamide | Disease Models, Animal | Heterografts | Humans | Immunologic Factors | Intravital Microscopy | Melanoma | Mice | Spatio-Temporal Analysis | Tumor Microenvironment

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Antibody Registry (Reagent, Antibodies)

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