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Loss of IFN-γ Pathway Genes in Tumor Cells as a Mechanism of Resistance to Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy.

Cell | Oct 6, 2016

Antibody blockade of the inhibitory CTLA-4 pathway has led to clinical benefit in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 enhances T cell responses, including production of IFN-γ, which is a critical cytokine for host immune responses. However, the role of IFN-γ signaling in tumor cells in the setting of anti-CTLA-4 therapy remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that patients identified as non-responders to anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) have tumors with genomic defects in IFN-γ pathway genes. Furthermore, mice bearing melanoma tumors with knockdown of IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) have impaired tumor rejection upon anti-CTLA-4 therapy. These data highlight that loss of the IFN-γ signaling pathway is associated with primary resistance to anti-CTLA-4 therapy. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tumor genomic data, especially IFN-γ related genes, as prognostic information for patients selected to receive treatment with immune checkpoint therapy.

Pubmed ID: 27667683 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Antibodies, Monoclonal | CTLA-4 Antigen | Cell Line, Tumor | Cytokines | Drug Resistance, Neoplasm | Gene Knockdown Techniques | Humans | Interferon-gamma | Ipilimumab | Melanoma | Melanoma, Experimental | Mice | Mice, Inbred C57BL | Receptors, Interferon | Skin Neoplasms | T-Lymphocytes

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BWA

Software for aligning sequencing reads against a large reference genome (e.g. human genome). It consists of three algorithms: one for sequence reads up to 100bp, and the other two for longer sequences ranged from 70bp to 1Mbp.

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affy

Software package that contains functions for exploratory oligonucleotide array analysis.

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Picard

Java toolset for working with next generation sequencing data in the BAM format.

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MuTect

Software for the reliable and accurate identification of somatic point mutations in next generation sequencing data of cancer genomes.

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1000 Genomes: A Deep Catalog of Human Genetic Variation

International collaboration producing an extensive public catalog of human genetic variation, including SNPs and structural variants, and their haplotype contexts, in an effort to provide a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The genomes of about 2500 unidentified people from about 25 populations around the world were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies. Redundant sequencing on various platforms and by different groups of scientists of the same samples can be compared. The results of the study are freely and publicly accessible to researchers worldwide. The consortium identified the following populations whose DNA will be sequenced: Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria; Japanese in Tokyo; Chinese in Beijing; Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe; Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; Maasai in Kinyawa, Kenya; Toscani in Italy; Gujarati Indians in Houston; Chinese in metropolitan Denver; people of Mexican ancestry in Los Angeles; and people of African ancestry in the southwestern United States. The goal Project is to find most genetic variants that have frequencies of at least 1% in the populations studied. Sequencing is still too expensive to deeply sequence the many samples being studied for this project. However, any particular region of the genome generally contains a limited number of haplotypes. Data can be combined across many samples to allow efficient detection of most of the variants in a region. The Project currently plans to sequence each sample to about 4X coverage; at this depth sequencing cannot provide the complete genotype of each sample, but should allow the detection of most variants with frequencies as low as 1%. Combining the data from 2500 samples should allow highly accurate estimation (imputation) of the variants and genotypes for each sample that were not seen directly by the light sequencing. All samples from the 1000 genomes are available as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and LCL derived DNA from the Coriell Cell Repository as part of the NHGRI Catalog. The sequence and alignment data generated by the 1000genomes project is made available as quickly as possible via their mirrored ftp sites. ftp://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk ftp://ftp-trace.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1000genomes

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NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP)

The goal of the project is to discover novel genes and mechanisms contributing to heart, lung and blood disorders by pioneering the application of next-generation sequencing of the protein coding regions of the human genome across diverse, richly-phenotyped populations and to share these datasets and findings with the scientific community to extend and enrich the diagnosis, management and treatment of heart, lung and blood disorders. The groups participating and collaborating in the NHLBI GO ESP include: Seattle GO - University of Washington, Seattle, WA Broad GO - Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA WHISP GO - Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH Lung GO - University of Washington, Seattle, WA WashU GO - Washington University, St. Louis, MO Heart GO - University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA ChargeS GO - University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston

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