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Chronic methamphetamine regulates the expression of MicroRNAs and putative target genes in the nucleus accumbens of mice.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are modulators of gene expression that play key regulatory roles in distinct cellular processes. Methamphetamine (METH) induces various aberrant changes in the limbic system by affecting a complex gene regulatory mechanism, yet the involvement of miRNAs in the effects of METH exposure remains unclear. This study identifies METH-responsive miRNAs and their potential effects in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice. Using miRNA sequencing, we examined the expression of miRNAs in the NAc of saline- and METH-treated mice and identified 45 known miRNAs to be METH responsive. Additionally, we identified two novel miRNA candidates that were METH responsive (novel-m002C and novel-m009C). Our target prediction analysis suggested that the known METH-regulated miRNAs might target genes that are involved in cellular autophagy, cellular metabolism, and immune responses and that the novel METH-regulated miRNA candidates might target genes that are related to drug addiction. We also matched the predicted targets of METH-regulated miRNAs with the NAc messenger RNA expression profile, revealing eight putative METH-regulated target genes (Arc, Capn9, Gbp5, Lefty1, Patl2, Pde4c, Strc, and Vmn1r58). Thus, METH triggers an alteration in NAc miRNA expression, which could contribute to METH-induced changes in neuron autophagy, metabolism, and immune responses. The differential expression of putative target genes suggests their involvement following exposure to METH.

Pubmed ID: 26031216 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Central Nervous System Stimulants | Cytoskeletal Proteins | Gene Expression Regulation | Genome | Male | Methamphetamine | Mice | Mice, Inbred C57BL | MicroRNAs | Nerve Tissue Proteins | Nucleus Accumbens | RNA, Messenger | Signal Transduction | Statistics, Nonparametric | Transcriptome

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Integrated Animals

Integrated Animals is a virtual database currently indexing available animal strains and mutants from: AGSC (Ambystoma), BCBC (mice), BDSC (flies), CWRU Cystic Fibrosis Mouse Models (mice), DGGR (flies), FlyBase (flies), IMSR (mice), MGI (mice), MMRRC (mice), NSRRC (pig), NXR (Xenopus), RGD (rats), Sperm Stem Cell Libraries for Biological Research (rats), Tetrahymena Stock Center (Tetrahymena), WormBase (worms), XGSC (Xiphophorus), ZFIN (zebrafish), and ZIRC (zebrafish).

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GenBank

NIH genetic sequence database that provides an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences for almost 280 000 formally described species. (Jan 2014) These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. It is part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration and daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP.

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RNAhybrid

A tool for finding the minimum free energy hybridization of a long and a short RNA. The hybridization is performed in a kind of domain mode, i.e., the short sequence is hybridized to the best fitting part of the long one. The tool is primarily meant as a means for microRNA target prediction.

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UCSC Genome Browser

A collection of genomes which include reference sequences and working draft assemblies, as well as a variety of tools to explore these sequences. The Genome Browser zooms and scrolls over chromosomes, showing the work of annotators worldwide. The Gene Sorter shows expression, homology and other information on groups of genes that can be related in many ways. Blat quickly maps your sequence to the genome. The Table Browser provides access to the underlying database. VisiGene lets you browse through a large collection of in situ mouse and frog images to examine expression patterns. Genome Graphs allows you to upload and display genome-wide data sets. Also provided is a portal to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and Neandertal projects.

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miRBase

Database of published miRNA sequences and annotation. Each entry represents a predicted hairpin portion of a miRNA transcript (termed mir in the database), with information on the location and sequence of the mature miRNA sequence (termed miR). Both hairpin and mature sequences are available for searching and browsing, and entries can also be retrieved by name, keyword, references and annotation. All sequence and annotation data are also available for download. The miRBase Registry provides miRNA gene hunters with unique names for novel miRNA genes prior to publication of results.

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SOAP

Software package that provides full solution to next generation sequencing data analysis consisting of an alignment tool (SOAPaligner/soap2), a re-sequencing consensus sequence builder (SOAPsnp), an indel finder ( SOAPindel ), a structural variation scanner ( SOAPsv ), a de novo short reads assembler ( SOAPdenovo ), and a GPU-accelerated alignment tool for aligning short reads with a reference sequence. (SOAP3/GPU).

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BLAST Assembled RefSeq Genomes

This portal takes you to the NCBI''s BLAST Assembled RefSeq Genomes. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) finds regions of local similarity between sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the statistical significance of matches. BLAST can be used to infer functional and evolutionary relationships between sequences as well as help identify members of gene families. Sponsors: This resource is supported by the National Institutes of Health. Keywords: BLAST, Genome, Search engine, Sequence, Biological, Local, Alignment, Nucleotide, Protein, Program, Database, Stastical, Functional, Evolutionaary, Gene,

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Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Expression Database

A repository of microarray gene expression profile data for Synechocystis PCC6803 (syn), Bacillus subtilis (bsu), Escherichia coli W3110 (ecj), Anabaena PCC7120 (ana), and other species contributed by the Japanese research community.

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Blast2GO

An ALL in ONE tool for functional annotation of (novel) sequences and the analysis of annotation data. Blast2GO (B2G) joins in one universal application similarity search based GO annotation and functional analysis. B2G offers the possibility of direct statistical analysis on gene function information and visualization of relevant functional features on a highlighted GO direct acyclic graph (DAG). Furthermore B2G includes various statistics charts summarizing the results obtained at BLASTing, GO-mapping, annotation and enrichment analysis (Fisher''''s Exact Test). All analysis process steps are configurable and data import and export are supported at any stage. The application also accepts pre-existing BLAST or annotation files and takes them to subsequent steps. The tool offers a very suitable platform for high throughput functional genomics research in non-model species. B2G is a species-independent, intuitive and interactive desktop application which allows monitoring and comprehending the whole annotation and analysis process supported by additional features like GO Slim integration, evidence code (EC) consideration, a Batch-Mode or GO-Multilevel-Pies. Platform: Windows compatible, Mac OS X compatible, Linux compatible, Unix compatible

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ArrayExpress

Database of functional genomics experiments including gene expression where you can query and download data collected to MIAME and MINSEQE standards. It includes gene expression data from microarray and high throughput sequencing studies. Gene Expression Atlas contains a subset of curated and re-annotated Archive data which can be queried for individual gene expression under different biological conditions across experiments. The ArrayExpress Archive is one of the three international public repositories of functional genomics data supporting publications. It includes data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies. Data are submitted by users and imported directly from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus. The ArrayExpress Archive is closely integrated with the Gene Expression Atlas and the sequence databases at the European Bioinformatics Institute. Advanced queries provided via ontology enabled interfaces include queries based on technology and sample attributes such as disease, cell types and anatomy. The Repository contains data from over 47787 experiments comprising approximately 1361377 assays (March 2014). The majority of the data are array based, but other data types are included, including ultra high-throughput sequencing transcriptomics and epigenetic data. All the data and array designs in ArrayExpress are available for direct download in a number of different formats. Submissions are welcome.

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MIREAP

A software tool which can be used to identify both known and novel microRNAs from small RNA libraries deeply sequenced by Solexa/454/Solid technology.

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SPSS

Predictive analytics software and solutions. IBM SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis. Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services).

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Rfam

The Rfam database is a collection of RNA families, each represented by multiple sequence alignments, consensus secondary structures and covariance models (CMs). The families in Rfam break down into three broad functional classes: Non-coding RNA genes, structured cis-regulatory elements and self-splicing RNAs. Typically these functional RNAs often have a conserved secondary structure which may be better preserved than the RNA sequence. The CMs used to describe each family are a slightly more complicated relative of the profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) used by Pfam. CMs can simultaneously model RNA sequence and the structure in an elegant and accurate fashion. Rfam is also available via FTP. You can find data in Rfam in various ways... * Analyze your RNA sequence for Rfam matches * View Rfam family annotation and alignments * View Rfam clan details * Query Rfam by keywords * Fetch families or sequences by NCBI taxonomy * Enter any type of accession or ID to jump to the page for a Rfam family, sequence or genome

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Library for Support Vector Machines

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