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Cadherin-8 expression, synaptic localization, and molecular control of neuronal form in prefrontal corticostriatal circuits.

Neocortical interactions with the dorsal striatum support many motor and executive functions, and such underlying functional networks are particularly vulnerable to a variety of developmental, neurological, and psychiatric brain disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Relatively little is known about the development of functional corticostriatal interactions, and in particular, virtually nothing is known of the molecular mechanisms that control generation of prefrontal cortex-striatal circuits. Here, we used regional and cellular in situ hybridization techniques coupled with neuronal tract tracing to show that Cadherin-8 (Cdh8), a homophilic adhesion protein encoded by a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders and learning disability susceptibility, is enriched within striatal projection neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and in striatal medium spiny neurons forming the direct or indirect pathways. Developmental analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot data show that Cdh8 expression peaks in the prefrontal cortex and striatum at P10, when cortical projections start to form synapses in the striatum. High-resolution immunoelectron microscopy shows that Cdh8 is concentrated at excitatory synapses in the dorsal striatum, and Cdh8 knockdown in cortical neurons impairs dendritic arborization and dendrite self-avoidance. Taken together, our findings indicate that Cdh8 delineates developing corticostriatal circuits where it is a strong candidate for regulating the generation of normal cortical projections, neuronal morphology, and corticostriatal synapses.

Pubmed ID: 25158904 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Cadherins | Cells, Cultured | Corpus Striatum | Dendrites | Female | Glutamic Acid | HEK293 Cells | Humans | Male | Mice, Inbred C57BL | Neural Pathways | Neurons | Prefrontal Cortex | RNA, Messenger | Rats, Sprague-Dawley | Synapses

Antibody Registry (Reagent, Antibodies)

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Antibody Registry

Public registry of antibodies with unique identifiers for commercial and non-commercial antibody reagents to give researchers a way to universally identify antibodies used in publications. The registry contains antibody product information organized according to genes, species, reagent types (antibodies, recombinant proteins, ELISA, siRNA, cDNA clones). Data is provided in many formats so that authors of biological papers, text mining tools and funding agencies can quickly and accurately identify the antibody reagents they and their colleagues used. The Antibody Registry allows any user to submit a new antibody or set of antibodies to the registry via a web form, or via a spreadsheet upload.

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Integrated Animals

Integrated Animals is a virtual database currently indexing available animal strains and mutants from: AGSC (Ambystoma), BCBC (mice), BDSC (flies), CWRU Cystic Fibrosis Mouse Models (mice), DGGR (flies), FlyBase (flies), IMSR (mice), MGI (mice), MMRRC (mice), NSRRC (pig), NXR (Xenopus), RGD (rats), Sperm Stem Cell Libraries for Biological Research (rats), Tetrahymena Stock Center (Tetrahymena), WormBase (worms), XGSC (Xiphophorus), ZFIN (zebrafish), and ZIRC (zebrafish).

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MetaMorph Microscopy Automation and Image Analysis Software

Software for automated microscope acquisition, device control, and image analysis for greater understanding of cell morphology, function, and behavior. It is the glue for easily integrating dissimilar fluorescent microscope hardware and peripherals into a signle custom workstation, while providing all the tools needed to perform meaningful analysis of acquired images. The software offers many user-friendly application modules for biology-specific analysis such as cell signaling, cell counting, and protein expression.

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Neurolucida

Neurolucida is advanced scientific software for brain mapping, neuron reconstruction, anatomical mapping, and morphometry. Since its debut more than 20 years ago, Neurolucida has continued to evolve and has become the worldwide gold-standard for neuron reconstruction and 3D mapping. Neurolucida has the flexibility to handle data in many formats: using live images from digital or video cameras; stored image sets from confocal microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning tomographic sources, or through the microscope oculars using the patented LucividTM. Neurolucida controls a motorized XYZ stage for integrated navigation through tissue sections, allowing for sophisticated analysis from many fields-of-view. Neurolucidas Serial Section Manager integrates unlimited sections into a single data file, maintaining each section in aligned 3D space for full quantitative analysis. Neurolucidas neuron tracing capabilities include 3D measurement and reconstruction of branching processes. Neurolucida also features sophisticated tools for mapping delineate and map anatomical regions for detailed morphometric analyses. Neurolucida uses advanced computer-controlled microscopy techniques to obtain accurate results and speed your work. Plug-in modules are available for confocal and MRI analysis, 3D solid modeling, and virtual slide creation. The user-friendly interface gives you rapid results, allowing you to acquire data and capture the full 3D extent of neurons and brain regions. You can reconstruct neurons or create 3D serial reconstructions directly from slides or acquired images, and Neurolucida offers full microscope control for brightfield, fluorescent, and confocal microscopes. Its added compatibility with 64-bit Microsoft Vista enables reconstructions with even larger images, image stacks, and virtual slides. Adding the Solid Modeling Module allows you to rotate and view your reconstructions in real time. Neurolucida is available in two separate versions Standard and Workstation. The Standard version enables control of microscope hardware, whereas the Workstation version is used for offline analysis away from the microscope. Neurolucida provides quantitative analysis with results presented in graphical or spreadsheet format exportable to Microsoft Excel. Overall, features include: - Tracing Neurons - Anatomical Mapping - Image Processing and Analysis Features - Editing - Morphometric Analysis - Hardware Integration - Cell Analysis - Visualization Features Sponsors: Neurolucida is supported by MBF Bioscience.

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ImageJ

It is an open source image processing Java program designed for scientific multidimensional images. This open platform for scientific image analysis is used in life sciences. Image J has been transformed to ImageJ2 application. This new application improves ImageJ data engine to be sufficient to analyze modern datasets and makes the addition of new functionality possible and provides a framework for interoperability between a plethora of external image visualization and analysis programs. ImageJ2 strengthens ImageJ’s utility by: 1) generalizing the ImageJ data model; 2) introducing a robust architecture instrumental in building bridges across a range of other image processing tools; 3) remaining open source and cross-platform with permissive licensing, enabling continued widespread adoption and extension; 4) building on the huge collection of existing ImageJ plugins while enabling the creation of new plugins with more powerful features; and 5) leveraging a correspondingly large and diverse community to foster a collaborative and interdisciplinary project that facilitates the collective advancement of science.

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Graphpad Prism

Statistical software package for data analysis, hypothesis testing, and modeling. The software can capable perform mathematical calculations (including biostatistics) and graphical plotting such as curve fitting (nonlinear regression) and scientific graphing.

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GenBank

NIH genetic sequence database that provides an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences for almost 280 000 formally described species. (Jan 2014) These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. It is part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration and daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP.

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