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A unique ion channel clustering domain on the axon initial segment of mammalian neurons.

The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a key role in initiation of action potentials and neuronal output. The plasma membrane of the AIS contains high densities of voltage-gated ion channels required for these electrical events, and much recent work has focused on defining the mechanisms for generating and maintaining this unique neuronal plasma membrane domain. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is abundantly present in large clusters on the soma and proximal dendrites of mammalian brain neurons. Kv2.1 is also a component of the ion channel repertoire at the AIS. Here we show that Kv2.1 clusters on the AIS of brain neurons across diverse mammalian species including humans define a noncanonical ion channel clustering domain deficient in Ankyrin-G. The sites of Kv2.1 clustering on the AIS are sites where cisternal organelles, specialized intracellular calcium release membranes, come into close apposition with the plasma membrane, and are also sites of clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses. Using an antibody specific for a single Kv2.1 phosphorylation site, we find that the phosphorylation state differs between Kv2.1 clusters on the proximal and distal portions of the AIS. Together, these studies show that the sites of Kv2.1 clustering on the AIS represent specialized domains containing components of diverse neuronal signaling pathways that may contribute to local regulation of Kv2.1 function and AIS membrane excitability.

Pubmed ID: 24477962 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Ankyrins | Axons | Brain | Cell Membrane | Ferrets | Humans | Ion Channels | Macaca | Male | Mice | Mice, Knockout | Middle Aged | Neurons | Organelles | Rats | Receptors, GABA-A | Shab Potassium Channels | Species Specificity | Synapses

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NeuroMab

A national mouse monoclonal antibody generating resource for biochemical and immunohistochemical applications in mammalian brain. NeuroMabs are generated from mice immunized with synthetic and recombinant immunogens corresponding to components of the neuronal proteome as predicted from genomic and other large-scale cloning efforts. Comprehensive biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of human, primate and non-primate mammalian brain are incorporated into the initial NeuroMab screening procedure. This yields a subset of mouse mAbs that are optimized for use in brain (i.e. NeuroMabs): for immunocytochemical-based imaging studies of protein localization in adult, developing and pathological brain samples, for biochemical analyses of subunit composition and post-translational modifications of native brain proteins, and for proteomic analyses of native brain protein networks. The NeuroMab facility was initially funded with a five-year U24 cooperative grant from NINDS and NIMH. The initial goal of the facility for this funding period is to generate a library of novel NeuroMabs against neuronal proteins, initially focusing on membrane proteins (receptors/channels/transporters), synaptic proteins, other neuronal signaling molecules, and proteins with established links to disease states. The scope of the facility was expanded with supplements from the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to include neurodevelopmental targets, the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research to include epigenetics targets, and NIH Office of Rare Diseases Research to include rare disease targets. These NeuroMabs will then be produced on a large scale and made available to the neuroscience research community on an inexpensive basis as tissue culture supernatants or purified immunoglobulin by Antibodies Inc. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility makes NeuroMabs available directly to end users and is unable to accommodate sales to distributors for third party distribution. Note, NeuroMab antibodies are now offered through antibodiesinc.

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