Longitudinal changes in dietary fat intake and associated changes in cardiovascular risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD trial.
AIMS: To measure dietary fat intake using the Puget Sound Eating Patterns (PEP) questionnaire, a validated 19-item food questionnaire, and to quantify how reduced dietary fat intake affects cardiovascular risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including a subsample of 1781 Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) participants. Participants received dietary counseling to consume a reduced-fat diet. Outcome measures included HbA1c, fasting lipid profile, blood pressure, and weight. Longitudinal linear regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between baseline and follow-up PEP scores and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: PEP scores decreased significantly from baseline to 12-month follow up with a mean difference of -0.09 ± 0.39, P<0.001. All of the fat intake subscales showed significant improvement at 12 months from baseline. White race, female gender, and more hours per week of physical activity were correlated with a decline in PEP scores at 1-year. A longitudinal decrease in dietary fat intake was associated with significantly less weight gain at 12- and 36-months and lower serum triglycerides at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced fat intake as measured by a brief questionnaire was associated with significant improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors (triglycerides and weight), but not in others.