Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) ensures gene-specific regulation and RNA quality control. Structural considerations suggested a requirement for initiation-factor eviction in elongation-factor engagement and pausing of transcription complexes. Here we show that selective inhibition of Cdk7--part of TFIIH--increases TFIIE retention, prevents DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) recruitment and attenuates pausing in human cells. Pause release depends on Cdk9-cyclin T1 (P-TEFb); Cdk7 is also required for Cdk9-activating phosphorylation and Cdk9-dependent downstream events--Pol II C-terminal domain Ser2 phosphorylation and histone H2B ubiquitylation--in vivo. Cdk7 inhibition, moreover, impairs Pol II transcript 3'-end formation. Cdk7 thus acts through TFIIE and DSIF to establish, and through P-TEFb to relieve, barriers to elongation: incoherent feedforward that might create a window to recruit RNA-processing machinery. Therefore, cyclin-dependent kinases govern Pol II handoff from initiation to elongation factors and cotranscriptional RNA maturation.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.