Inflammasomes are sensory complexes that alert the immune system to the presence of infection or tissue damage. These complexes assemble NLR (nucleotide binding and oligomerization, leucine-rich repeat) or ALR (absent in melanoma 2-like receptor) proteins to activate caspase-1 cleavage and interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-18 secretion. Here, we identified a non-NLR/ALR human protein that stimulates inflammasome assembly: guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5). GBP5 promoted selective NLRP3 inflammasome responses to pathogenic bacteria and soluble but not crystalline inflammasome priming agents. Generation of Gbp5(-/-) mice revealed pronounced caspase-1 and IL-1β/IL-18 cleavage defects in vitro and impaired host defense and Nlrp3-dependent inflammatory responses in vivo. Thus, GBP5 serves as a unique rheostat for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and extends our understanding of the inflammasome complex beyond its core machinery.
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