A sodium channel knockin mutant (NaV1.4-R669H) mouse model of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an ion channelopathy of skeletal muscle characterized by attacks of muscle weakness associated with low serum K+. HypoPP results from a transient failure of muscle fiber excitability. Mutations in the genes encoding a calcium channel (CaV1.1) and a sodium channel (NaV1.4) have been identified in HypoPP families. Mutations of NaV1.4 give rise to a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders, with gain-of-function defects causing myotonia or hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. To address the question of specificity for the allele encoding the NaV1.4-R669H variant as a cause of HypoPP and to produce a model system in which to characterize functional defects of the mutant channel and susceptibility to paralysis, we generated knockin mice carrying the ortholog of the gene encoding the NaV1.4-R669H variant (referred to herein as R669H mice). Homozygous R669H mice had a robust HypoPP phenotype, with transient loss of muscle excitability and weakness in low-K+ challenge, insensitivity to high-K+ challenge, dominant inheritance, and absence of myotonia. Recovery was sensitive to the Na+/K+-ATPase pump inhibitor ouabain. Affected fibers had an anomalous inward current at hyperpolarized potentials, consistent with the proposal that a leaky gating pore in R669H channels triggers attacks, whereas a reduction in the amplitude of action potentials implies additional loss-of-function changes for the mutant NaV1.4 channels.
Pubmed ID: 21881211 RIS Download
Amino Acid Substitution | Animals | Disease Models, Animal | Female | Gene Knock-In Techniques | Glucose | Homozygote | Humans | Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis | Insulin | Isometric Contraction | Male | Mice | Mice, Mutant Strains | Mutagenesis, Site-Directed | Mutant Proteins | NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel | Ouabain | Phenotype | Potassium | Sodium Channels