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Mutations in prickle orthologs cause seizures in flies, mice, and humans.

Epilepsy is heritable, yet few causative gene mutations have been identified, and thus far no human epilepsy gene mutations have been found to produce seizures in invertebrates. Here we show that mutations in prickle genes are associated with seizures in humans, mice, and flies. We identified human epilepsy patients with heterozygous mutations in either PRICKLE1 or PRICKLE2. In overexpression assays in zebrafish, prickle mutations resulted in aberrant prickle function. A seizure phenotype was present in the Prickle1-null mutant mouse, two Prickle1 point mutant (missense and nonsense) mice, and a Prickle2-null mutant mouse. Drosophila with prickle mutations displayed seizures that were responsive to anti-epileptic medication, and homozygous mutant embryos showed neuronal defects. These results suggest that prickle mutations have caused seizures throughout evolution.

Pubmed ID: 21276947


  • Tao H
  • Manak JR
  • Sowers L
  • Mei X
  • Kiyonari H
  • Abe T
  • Dahdaleh NS
  • Yang T
  • Wu S
  • Chen S
  • Fox MH
  • Gurnett C
  • Montine T
  • Bird T
  • Shaffer LG
  • Rosenfeld JA
  • McConnell J
  • Madan-Khetarpal S
  • Berry-Kravis E
  • Griesbach H
  • Saneto RP
  • Scott MP
  • Antic D
  • Reed J
  • Boland R
  • Ehaideb SN
  • El-Shanti H
  • Mahajan VB
  • Ferguson PJ
  • Axelrod JD
  • Lehesjoki AE
  • Fritzsch B
  • Slusarski DC
  • Wemmie J
  • Ueno N
  • Bassuk AG


American journal of human genetics

Publication Data

February 11, 2011

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NINDS NIH HHS, Id: 1R21NS058309-01A1
  • Agency: NINDS NIH HHS, Id: 3R01NS064159-02S1
  • Agency: NIA NIH HHS, Id: P50 AG05136
  • Agency: NCI NIH HHS, Id: R01 CA112369
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM059823
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM059823
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM097081
  • Agency: NINDS NIH HHS, Id: R01 NS064159
  • Agency: NCRR NIH HHS, Id: UL1 RR025014
  • Agency: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Id:
  • Agency: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Id:

Mesh Terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Brain
  • Calcium
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian
  • Epilepsies, Myoclonic
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mutation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Seizures
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins