• Register
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.


Leaving Community

Are you sure you want to leave this community? Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community.


Germinal center dynamics revealed by multiphoton microscopy with a photoactivatable fluorescent reporter.

The germinal center (GC) reaction produces high-affinity antibodies by random mutation and selective clonal expansion of B cells with high-affinity receptors. The mechanism by which B cells are selected remains unclear, as does the role of the two anatomically defined areas of the GC, light zone (LZ) and dark zone (DZ). We combined a transgenic photoactivatable fluorescent protein tracer with multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to examine anatomically defined LZ and DZ B cells and GC selection. We find that B cell division is restricted to the DZ, with a net vector of B cell movement from the DZ to the LZ. The decision to return to the DZ and undergo clonal expansion is controlled by T helper cells in the GC LZ, which discern between LZ B cells based on the amount of antigen captured and presented. Thus, T cell help, and not direct competition for antigen, is the limiting factor in GC selection.

Pubmed ID: 21074050


  • Victora GD
  • Schwickert TA
  • Fooksman DR
  • Kamphorst AO
  • Meyer-Hermann M
  • Dustin ML
  • Nussenzweig MC



Publication Data

November 12, 2010

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NCI NIH HHS, Id: CA009161-34
  • Agency: NIAID NIH HHS, Id: P01 AI071195
  • Agency: NIAID NIH HHS, Id: R01 AI072529
  • Agency: NIAID NIH HHS, Id: R01 AI072529
  • Agency: NIAID NIH HHS, Id: R01 AI072529-04
  • Agency: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Id:

Mesh Terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Female
  • Germinal Center
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton
  • Spleen
  • T-Lymphocytes