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The sequence read archive.

Nucleic acids research | Jan 23, 2011

The combination of significantly lower cost and increased speed of sequencing has resulted in an explosive growth of data submitted into the primary next-generation sequence data archive, the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). The preservation of experimental data is an important part of the scientific record, and increasing numbers of journals and funding agencies require that next-generation sequence data are deposited into the SRA. The SRA was established as a public repository for the next-generation sequence data and is operated by the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). INSDC partners include the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). The SRA is accessible at from NCBI, at from EBI and at from DDBJ. In this article, we present the content and structure of the SRA, detail our support for sequencing platforms and provide recommended data submission levels and formats. We also briefly outline our response to the challenge of data growth.

Pubmed ID: 21062823 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Databases, Nucleic Acid | High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing

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This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.

European Nucleotide Archive

Public archive providing a comprehensive record of the world''''s nucleotide sequencing information, covering raw sequencing data, sequence assembly information and functional annotation. All submitted data, once public, will be exchanged with the NCBI and DDBJ as part of the INSDC data exchange agreement. The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) captures and presents information relating to experimental workflows that are based around nucleotide sequencing. A typical workflow includes the isolation and preparation of material for sequencing, a run of a sequencing machine in which sequencing data are produced and a subsequent bioinformatic analysis pipeline. ENA records this information in a data model that covers input information (sample, experimental setup, machine configuration), output machine data (sequence traces, reads and quality scores) and interpreted information (assembly, mapping, functional annotation). Data arrive at ENA from a variety of sources including submissions of raw data, assembled sequences and annotation from small-scale sequencing efforts, data provision from the major European sequencing centers and routine and comprehensive exchange with their partners in the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). Provision of nucleotide sequence data to ENA or its INSDC partners has become a central and mandatory step in the dissemination of research findings to the scientific community. ENA works with publishers of scientific literature and funding bodies to ensure compliance with these principles and to provide optimal submission systems and data access tools that work seamlessly with the published literature. ENA is made up of a number of distinct databases that includes the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (Embl-Bank), the newly established Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and the Trace Archive. The main tool for downloading ENA data is the ENA Browser, which is available through REST URLs for easy programmatic use. All ENA data are available through the ENA Browser. Note: EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (EMBL-Bank) is entirely included within this resource.


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1000 Genomes: A Deep Catalog of Human Genetic Variation

International collaboration producing an extensive public catalog of human genetic variation, including SNPs and structural variants, and their haplotype contexts, in an effort to provide a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The genomes of about 2500 unidentified people from about 25 populations around the world were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies. Redundant sequencing on various platforms and by different groups of scientists of the same samples can be compared. The results of the study are freely and publicly accessible to researchers worldwide. The consortium identified the following populations whose DNA will be sequenced: Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria; Japanese in Tokyo; Chinese in Beijing; Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe; Luhya in Webuye, Kenya; Maasai in Kinyawa, Kenya; Toscani in Italy; Gujarati Indians in Houston; Chinese in metropolitan Denver; people of Mexican ancestry in Los Angeles; and people of African ancestry in the southwestern United States. The goal Project is to find most genetic variants that have frequencies of at least 1% in the populations studied. Sequencing is still too expensive to deeply sequence the many samples being studied for this project. However, any particular region of the genome generally contains a limited number of haplotypes. Data can be combined across many samples to allow efficient detection of most of the variants in a region. The Project currently plans to sequence each sample to about 4X coverage; at this depth sequencing cannot provide the complete genotype of each sample, but should allow the detection of most variants with frequencies as low as 1%. Combining the data from 2500 samples should allow highly accurate estimation (imputation) of the variants and genotypes for each sample that were not seen directly by the light sequencing. All samples from the 1000 genomes are available as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and LCL derived DNA from the Coriell Cell Repository as part of the NHGRI Catalog. The sequence and alignment data generated by the 1000genomes project is made available as quickly as possible via their mirrored ftp sites.


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