Phosphorylation of RUNX1 by cyclin-dependent kinase reduces direct interaction with HDAC1 and HDAC3.
RUNX1 regulates formation of the definitive hematopoietic stem cell and its subsequent lineage maturation, and mutations of RUNX1 contribute to leukemic transformation. Phosphorylation of Ser-48, Ser-303, and Ser-424 by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) increases RUNX1 trans-activation activity without perturbing p300 interaction. We now find that endogenous RUNX1 interacts with endogenous HDAC1 or HDAC3. Mutation of the three RUNX1 serines to aspartic acid reduces co-immunoprecipitation with HDAC1 or HDAC3 when expressed in 293T cells; mutation of these three serines to alanine increases HDAC interaction, and mutation of each serine individually to aspartic acid also reduces these interactions. GST-RUNX1 isolated from bacterial extracts bound in vitro translated HDAC1 or HDAC3, and these interactions were weakened by mutation of Ser-48, Ser-303, and Ser-424 to aspartic acid. The ability of RUNX1 phosphorylation and not only serine to aspartic acid conversion to reduce HDAC1 binding was demonstrated using wild-type GST-RUNX1 phosphorylated in vitro using cdk1/cyclinB and by exposure of 293T cells transduced with RUNX1 and HDAC1 to roscovitine, a cdk inhibitor. Finally, RUNX1 or RUNX1(tripleD), in which Ser-48, Ser-303, and Ser-424 are mutated to aspartic acid, stimulated proliferation of transduced, lineage-negative murine marrow progenitors more potently than did RUNX1(tripleA), in which these serines are mutated to alanine, suggesting that stimulation of RUNX1 trans-activation by cdk-mediated reduction in HDAC interaction increases marrow progenitor cell proliferation.
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