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The STRING database in 2011: functional interaction networks of proteins, globally integrated and scored.

An essential prerequisite for any systems-level understanding of cellular functions is to correctly uncover and annotate all functional interactions among proteins in the cell. Toward this goal, remarkable progress has been made in recent years, both in terms of experimental measurements and computational prediction techniques. However, public efforts to collect and present protein interaction information have struggled to keep up with the pace of interaction discovery, partly because protein-protein interaction information can be error-prone and require considerable effort to annotate. Here, we present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score, and accessory information such as protein domains and 3D structures is made available, all within a stable and consistent identifier space. New features in STRING include an interactive network viewer that can cluster networks on demand, updated on-screen previews of structural information including homology models, extensive data updates and strongly improved connectivity and integration with third-party resources. Version 9.0 of STRING covers more than 1100 completely sequenced organisms; the resource can be reached at http://string-db.org.

Pubmed ID: 21045058


  • Szklarczyk D
  • Franceschini A
  • Kuhn M
  • Simonovic M
  • Roth A
  • Minguez P
  • Doerks T
  • Stark M
  • Muller J
  • Bork P
  • Jensen LJ
  • von Mering C


Nucleic acids research

Publication Data

January 23, 2011

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Databases, Protein
  • Protein Interaction Mapping
  • Systems Integration
  • User-Computer Interface