Hypertrophic heart disease is a leading health problem in Western countries. Here we identified the small EF hand domain-containing protein Ca(2+) and integrin-binding protein-1 (CIB1) in a screen for previously unknown regulators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Yeast two-hybrid screening for CIB1-interacting partners identified a related EF hand domain-containing protein, calcineurin B, the regulatory subunit of the prohypertrophic protein phosphatase calcineurin. CIB1 localizes primarily to the sarcolemma in mouse and human myocardium, where it anchors calcineurin to control its activation in coordination with the L-type Ca(2+) channel. CIB1 protein amounts and membrane association were enhanced in cardiac pathological hypertrophy, but not in physiological hypertrophy. Consistent with these observations, Cib1-deleted mice showed a marked reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction and calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity after pressure overload, whereas the degree of physiologic hypertrophy after swimming exercise was not altered. Transgenic mice with inducible and cardiac-specific overexpression of CIB1 showed enhanced cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or calcineurin signaling. Moreover, mice lacking Ppp3cb (encoding calcineurin A, beta isozyme) showed no enhancement in cardiac hypertrophy associated with CIB1 overexpression. Thus, CIB1 functions as a previously undescribed regulator of cardiac hypertrophy through its ability to regulate the association of calcineurin with the sarcolemma and its activation.
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