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Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome.

We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-mega-base pair Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a M. capricolum recipient cell to create new M. mycoides cells that are controlled only by the synthetic chromosome. The only DNA in the cells is the designed synthetic DNA sequence, including "watermark" sequences and other designed gene deletions and polymorphisms, and mutations acquired during the building process. The new cells have expected phenotypic properties and are capable of continuous self-replication.

Pubmed ID: 20488990


  • Gibson DG
  • Glass JI
  • Lartigue C
  • Noskov VN
  • Chuang RY
  • Algire MA
  • Benders GA
  • Montague MG
  • Ma L
  • Moodie MM
  • Merryman C
  • Vashee S
  • Krishnakumar R
  • Assad-Garcia N
  • Andrews-Pfannkoch C
  • Denisova EA
  • Young L
  • Qi ZQ
  • Segall-Shapiro TH
  • Calvey CH
  • Parmar PP
  • Hutchison CA
  • Smith HO
  • Venter JC


Science (New York, N.Y.)

Publication Data

July 2, 2010

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Bioengineering
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Escherichia coli
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Genome, Bacterial
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mycoplasma capricolum
  • Mycoplasma mycoides
  • Phenotype
  • Plasmids
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Transformation, Bacterial