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Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): week 24 outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial after 24 weeks of treatment, including remission and relapse rates and predictors of treatment outcome. METHOD: Adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either a medication switch alone (alternate SSRI or venlafaxine) or a medication switch plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At week 12, responders could continue in their assigned treatment arm and nonresponders received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks (24 weeks total). The primary outcomes were remission and relapse, defined by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation as rated by an independent evaluator. RESULTS: Of 334 adolescents enrolled in the study, 38.9% achieved remission by 24 weeks, and initial treatment assignment did not affect rates of remission. Likelihood of remission was much higher (61.6% versus 18.3%) and time to remission was much faster among those who had already demonstrated clinical response by week 12. Remission was also higher among those with lower baseline depression, hopelessness, and self-reported anxiety. At week 12, lower depression, hopelessness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, family conflict, and absence of comorbid dysthymia, anxiety, and drug/alcohol use and impairment also predicted remission. Of those who responded by week 12, 19.6% had a relapse of depression by week 24. CONCLUSIONS: Continued treatment for depression among treatment-resistant adolescents results in remission in approximately one-third of patients, similar to adults. Eventual remission is evident within the first 6 weeks in many, suggesting that earlier intervention among nonresponders could be important.

Pubmed ID: 20478877


  • Emslie GJ
  • Mayes T
  • Porta G
  • Vitiello B
  • Clarke G
  • Wagner KD
  • Asarnow JR
  • Spirito A
  • Birmaher B
  • Ryan N
  • Kennard B
  • DeBar L
  • McCracken J
  • Strober M
  • Onorato M
  • Zelazny J
  • Keller M
  • Iyengar S
  • Brent D


The American journal of psychiatry

Publication Data

July 2, 2010

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-61835
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-61856
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-61864
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-61869
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-61958
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-62014
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: MH-66371
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: U01 MH061958
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: U01 MH061958-07
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: U01 MH062014

Mesh Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cyclohexanols
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Female
  • Fluoxetine
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Remission Induction
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Failure