Mutations in the Notch pathway ligand Jagged1 (JAG1) cause Alagille syndrome (AGS), as well as cardiac defects in seemingly nonsyndromic individuals. To estimate the frequency of JAG1 mutations in cases with right-sided cardiac defects not otherwise diagnosed with AGS, we screened 94 cases with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 50 with pulmonic stenosis/peripheral pulmonary stenosis (PS/PPS) or pulmonary valve atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA) for mutations. Sequence changes were identified in three TOF and three PS/PPS/PA patients, that were not present in 100 controls. We identified one frameshift and two missense mutations in the TOF cases, and one frameshift and two missense mutations in cases with PS/PPS/PA. The four missense mutations were assayed for their effect on protein localization, posttranslational modification, and ability to activate Notch signaling. The missense mutants displayed heterogeneous behavior in these assays, some with complete haploinsufficiency, suggesting that there are additional modifiers leading to organ specific features. We identified functionally significant mutations in 2% (2/94) of TOF patients and 4% (2/50) of PS/PPS/PA patients. Patients with right-sided cardiac defects should be carefully screened for features of AGS or a family history of cardiac defects that might suggest the presence of a JAG1 mutation.
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