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PedHunter 2.0 and its usage to characterize the founder structure of the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County.

BACKGROUND: Because they are a closed founder population, the Old Order Amish (OOA) of Lancaster County have been the subject of many medical genetics studies. We constructed four versions of Anabaptist Genealogy Database (AGDB) using three sources of genealogies and multiple updates. In addition, we developed PedHunter, a suite of query software that can solve pedigree-related problems automatically and systematically. METHODS: We report on how we have used new features in PedHunter to quantify the number and expected genetic contribution of founders to the OOA. The queries and utility of PedHunter programs are illustrated by examples using AGDB in this paper. For example, we calculated the number of founders expected to be contributing genetic material to the present-day living OOA and estimated the mean relative founder representation for each founder. New features in PedHunter also include pedigree trimming and pedigree renumbering, which should prove useful for studying large pedigrees. RESULTS: With PedHunter version 2.0 querying AGDB version 4.0, we identified 34,160 presumed living OOA individuals and connected them into a 14-generation pedigree descending from 554 founders (332 females and 222 males) after trimming. From the analysis of cumulative mean relative founder representation, 128 founders (78 females and 50 males) accounted for over 95% of the mean relative founder contribution among living OOA descendants. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: The OOA are a closed founder population in which a modest number of founders account for the genetic variation present in the current OOA population. Improvements to the PedHunter software will be useful in future studies of both the OOA and other populations with large and computerized genealogies.

Pubmed ID: 20433770


  • Lee WJ
  • Pollin TI
  • O'Connell JR
  • Agarwala R
  • Schäffer AA


BMC medical genetics

Publication Data

June 7, 2010

Associated Grants

  • Agency: Intramural NIH HHS, Id:

Mesh Terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Female
  • Founder Effect
  • Genealogy and Heraldry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Marriage
  • Models, Genetic
  • Pedigree
  • Pennsylvania
  • Protestantism