Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 2 controls energy balance and peripheral insulin action in mice.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with pleotropic functions, including clearance of hepatic insulin. We investigated the functions of the related protein CEACAM2, which has tissue-specific distribution (kidney, uterus, and crypt epithelia of intestinal tissues), in genetically modified mice. METHODS: Ceacam2-null mice (Cc2-/-) were generated from a 129/SvxC57BL/6J background. Female mice were assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis and indirect calorimetry and body fat composition was measured. Cc2-/- mice and controls were fed as pairs, given insulin tolerance tests, and phenotypically characterized. RESULTS: Female, but not male Cc2-/- mice exhibited obesity that resulted from hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. Pair feeding experiments showed that hyperphagia led to peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin action was normal in liver but compromised in skeletal muscle of female Cc2-/- mice; the mice had incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired glucose uptake and disposal. The mechanism of hyperphagia in Cc2-/- mice is not clear, but appears to result partly from increased hyperinsulinemia-induced hypothalamic fatty acid synthase levels and activity. Hyperinsulinemia was caused by increased insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: In mice, CEACAM2 is expressed by the hypothalamus. Cc2-/- mice develop obesity from hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure, indicating its role in regulating energy balance and insulin sensitivity.