LRRK2 and the stress response: interaction with MKKs and JNK-interacting proteins.
Increasing evidence supports a putative link between LRRK2 function and the MAP kinase cascades. We recently demonstrated that LRRK2 binds to MKK6, -3, and -7. Previous studies demonstrated that scaffold proteins are essential in the regulation of subcellular localization of stress kinase complexes. The c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) are a group of scaffold proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MAP kinase signaling cascades. JIP1-3 are known to regulate the specificity and localization of the JNK pathway, while JIP4 is a specific scaffolding protein for the p38 pathway. We demonstrate that LRRK2 binds to JIP1-4, and is associated with increased levels of total JIP1, -3, -4, oligomeric JIP and ubiquitinated JIP. These results are consistent with a putative role of LRRK2 in regulating the stress kinase cascade.