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Familial tumoral calcinosis: from characterization of a rare phenotype to the pathogenesis of ectopic calcification.

Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by the occurrence of cutaneous and subcutaneous calcified masses. Two major forms of the disease are now recognized. Hyperphosphatemic FTC has been shown to result from mutations in three genes: fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), coding for a potent phosphaturic protein, KL encoding Klotho, which serves as a co-receptor for FGF23, and GALNT3, which encodes a glycosyltransferase responsible for FGF23 O-glycosylation; defective function of any one of these three proteins results in hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcification. The second form of the disease is characterized by absence of metabolic abnormalities, and is, therefore, termed normophosphatemic FTC. This variant was found to be associated with absence of functional SAMD9, a putative tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory protein. The data gathered through the study of these rare disorders have recently led to the discovery of novel aspects of the pathogenesis of common disorders in humans, underscoring the potential concealed within the study of rare diseases.

Pubmed ID: 19865099 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Calcinosis | Fibroblast Growth Factors | Genotype | Glucuronidase | Humans | Hyperphosphatemia | N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases | Phenotype | Proteins | Skin