Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal in innate immunity and inflammation. Here we show that genetic deficiency in Peli1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, attenuated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by ligands of TLR3 and TLR4 and rendered mice resistant to septic shock. Peli1 was required for TLR3-induced activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and its 'downstream' target, transcription factor NF-kappaB, but was dispensable for IKK-NF-kappaB activation induced by several other TLRs and the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor. Notably, Peli1 bound to and ubiquitinated RIP1, a signaling molecule that mediates IKK activation induced by the TLR3 and TLR4 adaptor TRIF. Our findings suggest that Peli1 is a ubiquitin ligase needed for the transmission of TRIF-dependent TLR signals.
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