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A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

BACKGROUND: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. RESULTS: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion base pairs that has multiple improvements over previous assemblies: it is more complete, covering more of the genome; thousands of gaps have been closed; many erroneous inversions, deletions, and translocations have been corrected; and thousands of single-nucleotide errors have been corrected. Our evaluation using independent metrics demonstrates that the resulting assembly is substantially more accurate and complete than alternative versions. CONCLUSIONS: By using independent mapping data and conserved synteny between the cow and human genomes, we were able to construct an assembly with excellent large-scale contiguity in which a large majority (approximately 91%) of the genome has been placed onto the 30 B. taurus chromosomes. We constructed a new cow-human synteny map that expands upon previous maps. We also identified for the first time a portion of the B. taurus Y chromosome.

Pubmed ID: 19393038


  • Zimin AV
  • Delcher AL
  • Florea L
  • Kelley DR
  • Schatz MC
  • Puiu D
  • Hanrahan F
  • Pertea G
  • Van Tassell CP
  • Sonstegard TS
  • Marçais G
  • Roberts M
  • Subramanian P
  • Yorke JA
  • Salzberg SL


Genome biology

Publication Data

June 2, 2009

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM083873
  • Agency: NLM NIH HHS, Id: R01 LM006845
  • Agency: NLM NIH HHS, Id: R01 LM006845-09
  • Agency: NLM NIH HHS, Id: R01 LM006845-10
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01-GM083873
  • Agency: NHGRI NIH HHS, Id: R01-HG002945
  • Agency: NLM NIH HHS, Id: R01-LM006845

Mesh Terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Female
  • Genome
  • Genome, Human
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Synteny
  • Y Chromosome