Chromosome segregation is triggered by separase, an enzyme that cleaves cohesin, the protein complex that holds sister chromatids together. Separase activation requires the destruction of its inhibitor, securin, which occurs only upon the correct attachment of chromosomes to the spindle. However, other mechanisms restrict separase activity to the appropriate window in the cell cycle because cohesin is cleaved in a timely manner in securin-deficient cells. We investigated the mechanism by which the protector protein Shugoshin counteracts cohesin cleavage in budding yeast. We show that Shugoshin can prevent separase activation independently of securin. Instead, PP2A(Cdc55) is essential for Shugoshin-mediated inhibition of separase. Loss of both securin and Cdc55 leads to premature sister chromatid separation, resulting in aneuploidy. We propose that Cdc55 is a separase inhibitor that acts downstream from Shugoshin under conditions where sister chromatids are not under tension.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.