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Elements of morphology: standard terminology for the hands and feet.

An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the hands and feet and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet.

Pubmed ID: 19125433


  • Biesecker LG
  • Aase JM
  • Clericuzio C
  • Gurrieri F
  • Temple IK
  • Toriello H


American journal of medical genetics. Part A

Publication Data

January 22, 2009

Associated Grants

  • Agency: Intramural NIH HHS, Id: Z01 HG200328-03

Mesh Terms

  • Anthropometry
  • Foot
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital
  • Hand
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital
  • Humans
  • Limb Deformities, Congenital
  • Nails
  • Nails, Malformed
  • Phenotype
  • Terminology as Topic