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SNAP: a web-based tool for identification and annotation of proxy SNPs using HapMap.

SUMMARY: The interpretation of genome-wide association results is confounded by linkage disequilibrium between nearby alleles. We have developed a flexible bioinformatics query tool for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify and to annotate nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (proxies) based on HapMap. By offering functionality to generate graphical plots for these data, the SNAP server will facilitate interpretation and comparison of genome-wide association study results, and the design of fine-mapping experiments (by delineating genomic regions harboring associated variants and their proxies). AVAILABILITY: SNAP server is available at

Pubmed ID: 18974171


  • Johnson AD
  • Handsaker RE
  • Pulit SL
  • Nizzari MM
  • O'Donnell CJ
  • de Bakker PI


Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)

Publication Data

December 15, 2008

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NHLBI NIH HHS, Id: N01-HC-25195
  • Agency: NHLBI NIH HHS, Id: N01-HC-65226
  • Agency: Intramural NIH HHS, Id:

Mesh Terms

  • Genome, Human
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Software