Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) induces the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM, and mediates apoptosis in hepatocytes and B lymphocytes. BIM is regulated through a post-translational mechanism involving ERK-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that TGFbeta induces BIM through its rapid inhibition of ERK, thereby preventing the phosphorylation and degradation of BIM. TGFbeta, through a SMAD3-dependent mechanism, transcriptionally induces the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase MKP2, encoded by an immediate early gene, to attenuate ERK and promote the accumulation of BIM protein. Overexpression of MKP2 in hepatocytes modulates ERK-mediated phosphorylation of BIM and apoptosis in the absence of TGFbeta, whereas its ablation in pro-B cells, derived from MKP2-deficient mice, protects cells from TGFbeta-mediated apoptosis, and blocks TGFbeta-induced ERK inhibition and BIM induction. Furthermore, in pro-B cells derived from SMAD3-deficient mice, induction of MKP2 by TGFbeta, inhibition of ERK, induction of BIM and apoptosis do not occur. Our results indicate that MKP2 mediates TGFbeta-dependent apoptosis by linking SMAD3 to the modulation of ERK activity and mitochondrial-mediated pro-apoptotic events.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.