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Mouse cones require an arrestin for normal inactivation of phototransduction.

Arrestins are proteins that arrest the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). While it is well established that normal inactivation of photoexcited rhodopsin, the GPCR of rod phototransduction, requires arrestin (Arr1), it has been controversial whether the same requirement holds for cone opsin inactivation. Mouse cone photoreceptors express two distinct visual arrestins: Arr1 and Arr4. By means of recordings from cones of mice with one or both arrestins knocked out, this investigation establishes that a visual arrestin is required for normal cone inactivation. Arrestin-independent inactivation is 70-fold more rapid in cones than in rods, however. Dual arrestin expression in cones could be a holdover from ancient genome duplication events that led to multiple isoforms of arrestin, allowing evolutionary specialization of one form while the other maintains the basic function.

Pubmed ID: 18701071


  • Nikonov SS
  • Brown BM
  • Davis JA
  • Zuniga FI
  • Bragin A
  • Pugh EN
  • Craft CM



Publication Data

August 14, 2008

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: EY015851
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: EY016453
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: EY02660
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: EY03040
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM799102
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY002660
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY002660-30
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY015851-01A2
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY015851-02
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY015851-03
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id: R01 EY015851-04

Mesh Terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Arrestin
  • Electrophysiology
  • Light
  • Membrane Potentials
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Reaction Time
  • Retina
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells
  • Rod Opsins
  • Vision, Ocular