Activated Rac1, but not the tumorigenic variant Rac1b, is ubiquitinated on Lys 147 through a JNK-regulated process.
Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation have recently emerged as an additional level of regulation of activated forms of Rho GTPases. To characterize this novel regulatory pathway and to gain insight into its biological significance, we studied the ubiquitination of two constitutively activated forms of Rac1, i.e. the mutationally activated Rac1L61, and the tumorigenic splice variant Rac1b, which is defective for several downstream signaling pathways, including JNK activation. Whereas Rac1L61 undergoes polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation in HEK293 cells, Rac1b is poorly ubiquitinated and appears to be much more resistant to proteasomal degradation than Rac1L61. Mutational analysis of all lysine residues in Rac1 revealed that the major target site for Rac1 ubiquitination is Lys147, a solvent-accessible residue that has a similar conformation in Rac1b. Like Rac1L61, Rac1b was found to be largely associated with plasma membrane, a known prerequisite for Rac1 ubiquitination. Interestingly, Rac1b ubiquitination could be stimulated by coexpression of Rac1L61, suggesting positive regulation of Rac1 ubiquitination by Rac1 downstream signaling. Indeed, ubiquitination of Rac1L61 is critically dependent on JNK activation. IN CONCLUSION: (a) Rac1b appears to be more stable than Rac1L61 with regard to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and this may be of importance for the expression and tumorigenic capacity of Rac1b; and (b) ubiquitination of activated Rac1 occurs through a JNK-activated process, which may explain the defective ubiquitination of Rac1b. The JNK-dependent activation of Rac1 ubiquitination would create a regulatory loop allowing the cell to counteract excessive activation of Rac1 GTPase.