We have updated our privacy policy. If you have any question, contact us at privacy@scicrunch.org. Dismiss and don't show again

Searching across hundreds of databases

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Comparative genomics search for losses of long-established genes on the human lineage.

Taking advantage of the complete genome sequences of several mammals, we developed a novel method to detect losses of well-established genes in the human genome through syntenic mapping of gene structures between the human, mouse, and dog genomes. Unlike most previous genomic methods for pseudogene identification, this analysis is able to differentiate losses of well-established genes from pseudogenes formed shortly after segmental duplication or generated via retrotransposition. Therefore, it enables us to find genes that were inactivated long after their birth, which were likely to have evolved nonredundant biological functions before being inactivated. The method was used to look for gene losses along the human lineage during the approximately 75 million years (My) since the common ancestor of primates and rodents (the euarchontoglire crown group). We identified 26 losses of well-established genes in the human genome that were all lost at least 50 My after their birth. Many of them were previously characterized pseudogenes in the human genome, such as GULO and UOX. Our methodology is highly effective at identifying losses of single-copy genes of ancient origin, allowing us to find a few well-known pseudogenes in the human genome missed by previous high-throughput genome-wide studies. In addition to confirming previously known gene losses, we identified 16 previously uncharacterized human pseudogenes that are definitive losses of long-established genes. Among them is ACYL3, an ancient enzyme present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes, but lost approximately 6 to 8 Mya in the ancestor of humans and chimps. Although losses of well-established genes do not equate to adaptive gene losses, they are a useful proxy to use when searching for such genetic changes. This is especially true for adaptive losses that occurred more than 250,000 years ago, since any genetic evidence of the selective sweep indicative of such an event has been erased.

Pubmed ID: 18085818 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Biological Evolution | Chromosome Mapping | DNA Mutational Analysis | Dogs | Evolution, Molecular | Gene Deletion | Genetic Variation | Genome, Human | Genomics | Humans | Mice | Pseudogenes

Publication data is provided by the National Library of Medicine ® and PubMed ®. Data is retrieved from PubMed ® on a weekly schedule. For terms and conditions see the National Library of Medicine Terms and Conditions.

This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.


Service providing functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. They combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalizing on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool. This integrated database of predictive protein signatures is used for the classification and automatic annotation of proteins and genomes. InterPro classifies sequences at superfamily, family and subfamily levels, predicting the occurrence of functional domains, repeats and important sites. InterPro adds in-depth annotation, including GO terms, to the protein signatures. You can access the data programmatically, via Web Services. The member databases use a number of approaches: # ProDom: provider of sequence-clusters built from UniProtKB using PSI-BLAST. # PROSITE patterns: provider of simple regular expressions. # PROSITE and HAMAP profiles: provide sequence matrices. # PRINTS provider of fingerprints, which are groups of aligned, un-weighted Position Specific Sequence Matrices (PSSMs). # PANTHER, PIRSF, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, Gene3D and SUPERFAMILY: are providers of hidden Markov models (HMMs). Your contributions are welcome. You are encouraged to use the ''''Add your annotation'''' button on InterPro entry pages to suggest updated or improved annotation for individual InterPro entries.


View all literature mentions