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FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis.

Precise timing of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression is necessary for day-length discrimination for photoperiodic flowering. The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that FKF1 and GI proteins form a complex in a blue-light-dependent manner. The timing of this interaction regulates the timing of daytime CO expression. FKF1 function is dependent on GI, which interacts with a CO repressor, CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1), and controls CDF1 stability. GI, FKF1, and CDF1 proteins associate with CO chromatin. Thus, the FKF1-GI complex forms on the CO promoter in late afternoon to regulate CO expression, providing a mechanistic view of how the coincidence of light with circadian timing regulates photoperiodic flowering.

Pubmed ID: 17872410


  • Sawa M
  • Nusinow DA
  • Kay SA
  • Imaizumi T


Science (New York, N.Y.)

Publication Data

October 12, 2007

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM056006
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM067837
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM079712
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM079712
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: R01 GM079712-03

Mesh Terms

  • Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Flowers
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Light
  • Mutation
  • Photoperiod
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors