Precise timing of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression is necessary for day-length discrimination for photoperiodic flowering. The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that FKF1 and GI proteins form a complex in a blue-light-dependent manner. The timing of this interaction regulates the timing of daytime CO expression. FKF1 function is dependent on GI, which interacts with a CO repressor, CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1), and controls CDF1 stability. GI, FKF1, and CDF1 proteins associate with CO chromatin. Thus, the FKF1-GI complex forms on the CO promoter in late afternoon to regulate CO expression, providing a mechanistic view of how the coincidence of light with circadian timing regulates photoperiodic flowering.
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