The gut epithelium self-renews every several days, providing an important innate defense system that limits bacterial colonization. Nevertheless, many bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. Here, we show that the Shigella effector IpaB, when delivered into epithelial cells, causes cell-cycle arrest by targeting Mad2L2, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) inhibitor. Cyclin B1 ubiquitination assays revealed that APC undergoes unscheduled activation due to IpaB interaction with the APC inhibitor Mad2L2. Synchronized HeLa cells infected with Shigella failed to accumulate Cyclin B1, Cdc20, and Plk1, causing cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in an IpaB/Mad2L2-dependent manner. IpaB/Mad2L2-dependent cell-cycle arrest by Shigella infection was also demonstrated in rabbit intestinal crypt progenitors, and the IpaB-mediated arrest contributed to efficient colonization of the host cells. These results strongly indicate that Shigella employ special tactics to influence epithelial renewal in order to promote bacterial colonization of intestinal epithelium.
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