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In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state.

Nuclear transplantation can reprogramme a somatic genome back into an embryonic epigenetic state, and the reprogrammed nucleus can create a cloned animal or produce pluripotent embryonic stem cells. One potential use of the nuclear cloning approach is the derivation of 'customized' embryonic stem (ES) cells for patient-specific cell treatment, but technical and ethical considerations impede the therapeutic application of this technology. Reprogramming of fibroblasts to a pluripotent state can be induced in vitro through ectopic expression of the four transcription factors Oct4 (also called Oct3/4 or Pou5f1), Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Here we show that DNA methylation, gene expression and chromatin state of such induced reprogrammed stem cells are similar to those of ES cells. Notably, the cells-derived from mouse fibroblasts-can form viable chimaeras, can contribute to the germ line and can generate live late-term embryos when injected into tetraploid blastocysts. Our results show that the biological potency and epigenetic state of in-vitro-reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells are indistinguishable from those of ES cells.

Pubmed ID: 17554336


  • Wernig M
  • Meissner A
  • Foreman R
  • Brambrink T
  • Ku M
  • Hochedlinger K
  • Bernstein BE
  • Jaenisch R



Publication Data

July 19, 2007

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: T32 GM007753

Mesh Terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Lineage
  • Chimera
  • Chromatin
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Silencing
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Teratoma