Mammalian tumor xenografts induce neovascularization in zebrafish embryos.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio)/tumor xenograft model represents a powerful new model system in cancer. Here, we describe a novel exploitation of the zebrafish model to investigate tumor angiogenesis, a pivotal step in cancer progression and target for antitumor therapies. Human and murine tumor cell lines that express the angiogenic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and/or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induce the rapid formation of a new microvasculature when grafted close to the developing subintestinal vessels of zebrafish embryos at 48 h postfertilization. Instead, no angiogenic response was exerted by related cell clones defective in the production of these angiogenic growth factors. The newly formed blood vessels sprout from the subintestinal plexus of the zebrafish embryo, penetrate the tumor graft, and express the transcripts for the zebrafish orthologues of the early endothelial markers Fli-1, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR), and VE-cadherin. Accordingly, green fluorescent protein-positive neovessels infiltrate the graft when tumor cells are injected in transgenic VEGFR2:G-RCFP zebrafish embryos that express green fluorescent protein under the control of the VEGFR2/KDR promoter. Systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos immediately after tumor cell injection to prototypic antiangiogenic inhibitors, including the FGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5402 and the VEGFR2/KDR tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5416, suppresses tumor-induced angiogenesis without affecting normal blood vessel development. Accordingly, VE-cadherin gene inactivation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide injection inhibits tumor neovascularization without affecting the development of intersegmental and subintestinal vessels. These data show that the zebrafish/tumor xenograft model represents a novel tool for investigating the neovascularization process exploitable for drug discovery and gene targeting in tumor angiogenesis.