Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax is a transcriptional regulator that interacts with a large number of host cell factors. Here, we report the novel characterization of the interaction of Tax with a human cell protein named Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1). We show that TAX1BP1 is a nuclear receptor coactivator that forms a complex with the glucocorticoid receptor. TAX1BP1 and Tax colocalize into intranuclear speckles that partially overlap with but are not identical to the PML oncogenic domains. Tax binds TAX1BP1 directly, induces the dissociation of TAX1BP1 from the glucocorticoid receptor-containing protein complex, and represses the coactivator function of TAX1BP1. Genetic knockout of Tax1bp1 in mice abrogates the influence of Tax on the activation of nuclear receptors. We propose that Tax-TAX1BP1 interaction mechanistically explains the previously reported repression of nuclear receptor activity by Tax.
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