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Description and genetic mapping of Polypodia: an X-linked dominant mouse mutant with ectopic caudal limbs and other malformations.

In this report we present a spontaneous mouse mutant, named Polypodia (Ppd), that primarily exhibits ectopic, ventral/caudal limbs and associated pelvic girdle malformation or duplication. Less penetrant features include diphallia, microphthalmia, small kidney, curled or kinked tail, forelimb anomaly, and skin papillae. Ppd mice have a normal karyotype and no large-scale genomic deletions or insertions by BAC-based array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Ppd is X-linked dominant with approximately 20% penetrance on the C3H background and maps to X:61.6 Mb-X:71.24 Mb. The limb and a subset of the nonlimb anomalies are similar to those in offspring from retinoic acid-treated dams at E4.5-5.5 and feature overlap with the Disorganization mouse mutant and human patients with ectopic legs. We hypothesize that Ppd affects very early steps in the formation of caudal structures including limb and appendage number. The existence of noncaudal anomalies implies the involvement of Ppd in a broad array of cell fate decisions.

Pubmed ID: 16964440


  • Lehoczky JA
  • Cai WW
  • Douglas JA
  • Moran JL
  • Beier DR
  • Innis JW


Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society

Publication Data

September 22, 2006

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM07544
  • Agency: PHS HHS, Id: RZIHD053022
  • Agency: NICHD NIH HHS, Id: U01HD43430

Mesh Terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple
  • Animals
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Extremities
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Genes, X-Linked
  • Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype