This study assessed midsagittal corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD clinical subgroup analysis revealed greater proportional callosum reduction in the more severely affected autistic disorder (AD) than in pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) children. DD children had smaller absolute callosums than ASD and TD. Subregion analysis revealed widely distributed callosum differences between ASD and TD children. Results could reflect decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity or cerebral enlargement due to increase in tissues less represented in the corpus callosum in ASD.
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