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Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults.

Among younger adults, the ability to willfully regulate negative affect, enabling effective responses to stressful experiences, engages regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala. Because regions of PFC and the amygdala are known to influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, here we test whether PFC and amygdala responses during emotion regulation predict the diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion. We also test whether PFC and amygdala regions are engaged during emotion regulation in older (62- to 64-year-old) rather than younger individuals. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging as participants regulated (increased or decreased) their affective responses or attended to negative picture stimuli. We also collected saliva samples for 1 week at home for cortisol assay. Consistent with previous work in younger samples, increasing negative affect resulted in ventral lateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial regions of PFC and amygdala activation. In contrast to previous work, decreasing negative affect did not produce the predicted robust pattern of higher PFC and lower amygdala activation. Individuals demonstrating the predicted effect (decrease < attend in the amygdala), however, exhibited higher signal in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) for the same contrast. Furthermore, participants displaying higher VMPFC and lower amygdala signal when decreasing compared with the attention control condition evidenced steeper, more normative declines in cortisol over the course of the day. Individual differences yielded the predicted link between brain function while reducing negative affect in the laboratory and diurnal regulation of endocrine activity in the home environment.

Pubmed ID: 16624961

Authors

  • Urry HL
  • van Reekum CM
  • Johnstone T
  • Kalin NH
  • Thurow ME
  • Schaefer HS
  • Jackson CA
  • Frye CJ
  • Greischar LL
  • Alexander AL
  • Davidson RJ

Journal

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Publication Data

April 19, 2006

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NCRR NIH HHS, Id: M01-RR03186
  • Agency: NIA NIH HHS, Id: P01-AG021079
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: P50-MH069315
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: P50-MH52354
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: P50-MH61083
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: R37-MH43454

Mesh Terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aging
  • Amygdala
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Emotions
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prefrontal Cortex