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The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt): an expanding universe of protein information.

The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) provides a central resource on protein sequences and functional annotation with three database components, each addressing a key need in protein bioinformatics. The UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB), comprising the manually annotated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot section and the automatically annotated UniProtKB/TrEMBL section, is the preeminent storehouse of protein annotation. The extensive cross-references, functional and feature annotations and literature-based evidence attribution enable scientists to analyse proteins and query across databases. The UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) speed similarity searches via sequence space compression by merging sequences that are 100% (UniRef100), 90% (UniRef90) or 50% (UniRef50) identical. Finally, the UniProt Archive (UniParc) stores all publicly available protein sequences, containing the history of sequence data with links to the source databases. UniProt databases continue to grow in size and in availability of information. Recent and upcoming changes to database contents, formats, controlled vocabularies and services are described. New download availability includes all major releases of UniProtKB, sequence collections by taxonomic division and complete proteomes. A bibliography mapping service has been added, and an ID mapping service will be available soon. UniProt databases can be accessed online at http://www.uniprot.org or downloaded at ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub/databases/.

Pubmed ID: 16381842


  • Wu CH
  • Apweiler R
  • Bairoch A
  • Natale DA
  • Barker WC
  • Boeckmann B
  • Ferro S
  • Gasteiger E
  • Huang H
  • Lopez R
  • Magrane M
  • Martin MJ
  • Mazumder R
  • O'Donovan C
  • Redaschi N
  • Suzek B


Nucleic acids research

Publication Data

January 1, 2006

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NHGRI NIH HHS, Id: 1 U01 HG02712-01
  • Agency: NHGRI NIH HHS, Id: 1R01HGO2273-01
  • Agency: AHRQ HHS, Id: HHSN266200400061C

Mesh Terms

  • Databases, Protein
  • Internet
  • Proteins
  • Proteome
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein
  • Systems Integration
  • User-Computer Interface