Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus.
Antiviral immunity against a pathogen is mounted upon recognition by the host of virally associated structures. One of these viral 'signatures', double-stranded (ds) RNA, is a replication product of most viruses within infected cells and is sensed by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the recently identified cytosolic RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I, also known as Ddx58) and Mda5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard). Both helicases detect dsRNA, and through their protein-interacting CARD domains, relay an undefined signal resulting in the activation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-kappaB. Here we describe Cardif, a new CARD-containing adaptor protein that interacts with RIG-I and recruits IKKalpha, IKKbeta and IKKvarepsilon kinases by means of its C-terminal region, leading to the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF3. Overexpression of Cardif results in interferon-beta and NF-kappaB promoter activation, and knockdown of Cardif by short interfering RNA inhibits RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses. Cardif is targeted and inactivated by NS3-4A, a serine protease from hepatitis C virus known to block interferon-beta production. Cardif thus functions as an adaptor, linking the cytoplasmic dsRNA receptor RIG-I to the initiation of antiviral programmes.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.