Targeted deletion of the integrin beta4 signaling domain suppresses laminin-5-dependent nuclear entry of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB, causing defects in epidermal growth and migration.
The alpha6beta4 integrin-a laminin-5 receptor-mediates assembly of hemidesmosomes and recruitment of Shc and phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the unique cytoplasmic extension of beta4. Mice carrying a targeted deletion of the signaling domain of beta4 develop normally and do not display signs of skin fragility. The epidermis of these mice contains well-structured hemidesmosomes and adheres stably to the basement membrane. However, it is hypoplastic due to reduced proliferation of basal keratinocytes and undergoes wound repair at a reduced rate. Keratinocytes from beta4 mutant mice undergo extensive spreading but fail to proliferate and migrate in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) on laminin-5. EGF causes significant phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB in beta4 mutant cells adhering to laminin-5. Unexpectedly, however, ERK, JNK, and NF-kappaB remain in the cytoplasm in beta4 mutant cells on laminin-5, whereas they enter effectively into the nucleus in the same cells on fibronectin or in wild-type cells on both matrix proteins. Inhibitor studies indicate that alpha6beta4 promotes keratinocyte proliferation and migration through its effect on NF-kappaB and P-JNK. These findings provide evidence that beta4 signaling promotes epidermal growth and wound healing through a previously unrecognized effect on nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.