ABCA5 resides in lysosomes, and ABCA5 knockout mice develop lysosomal disease-like symptoms.
ABCA5 is a member of the ABC transporter A subfamily, and a mouse orthologue (mABCA5) in newborn mouse brain and neural cells was identified by reverse transcription-PCR. Full-length cDNA cloning revealed that mABCA5 consists of 1,642 amino acid residues and that its putative structure is that of a full-type ABC transporter having two sets of six transmembrane segments and a nucleotide binding domain. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that mABCA5 is expressed in brain, lung, heart, and thyroid gland. A subcellular localization analysis showed that mABCA5 is a resident of lysosomes and late endosomes. Abca5(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited symptoms similar to those of several lysosomal diseases in heart, although no prominent abnormalities were found in brain or lung. They developed a dilated cardiomyopathy-like heart after reaching adulthood and died due to depression of the cardiovascular system. In addition, Abca5(-)(/)(-) mice also exhibited exophthalmos and collapse of the thyroid gland. Therefore, ABCA5 is a protein related to a lysosomal disease and plays important roles, especially in cardiomyocytes and follicular cells.