The analysis of complex patterns of gene regulation is central to understanding the biology of cells, tissues and organisms. Patterns of gene regulation pertaining to specific biological processes can be revealed by a variety of experimental strategies, particularly microarrays and other highly parallel methods, which generate large datasets linking many genes. Although methods for detecting gene expression have improved substantially in recent years, understanding the physiological implications of complex patterns in gene expression data is a major challenge. This article presents GoSurfer, an easy-to-use graphical exploration tool with built-in statistical features that allow a rapid assessment of the biological functions represented in large gene sets. GoSurfer takes one or two list(s) of gene identifiers (Affymetrix probe set ID) as input and retrieves all the Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with the input genes. GoSurfer visualises these GO terms in a hierarchical tree format. With GoSurfer, users can perform statistical tests to search for the GO terms that are enriched in the annotations of the input genes. These GO terms can be highlighted on the GO tree. Users can manipulate the GO tree in various ways and interactively query the genes associated with any GO term. The user-generated graphics can be saved as graphics files, and all the GO information related to the input genes can be exported as text files. AVAILABILITY: GoSurfer is a Windows-based program freely available for noncommercial use and can be downloaded at http://www.gosurfer.org. Datasets used to construct the trees shown in the figures in this article are available at http://www.gosurfer.org/download/GoSurfer.zip.
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