A variation in the BDNF gene (val66met) affects the function of BDNF in neurons, predicts variation in human memory, and is associated with several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we show that, in magnetic resonance imaging scans of a large sample of normal individuals, this polymorphism affects the anatomy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, identifying a genetic mechanism of variation in brain morphology related to learning and memory.
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