Literature search services are currently unavailable. During our hosting provider's UPS upgrade we experienced a hardware failure and are currently working to resolve the issue.

Preparing your results

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

TIN2 binds TRF1 and TRF2 simultaneously and stabilizes the TRF2 complex on telomeres.

Human telomeres contain two related telomeric DNA-binding proteins, TRF1 and TRF2. The TRF1 complex contains the TRF1 interacting partner, TIN2, as well as PIP1 and POT1 and regulates telomere-length homeostasis. The TRF2 complex is primarily involved in telomere protection and contains the TRF2 interacting partner human (h)Rap1 as well as several factors involved in the DNA damage response. A prior report showed that conditional deletion of murine TRF1 reduced the presence of TRF2 on telomeres. Here we showed that TRF2 is also lost from human telomeres upon TRF1 depletion with small interfering RNA prompting a search for the connection between the TRF1 and TRF2 complexes. Using mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation, we found that TRF1, TIN2, PIP1, and POT1 are associated with the TRF2-hRap1 complex. Gel filtration identified a TRF2 complex containing TIN2 and POT1 but not TRF1 indicating that TRF1 is not required for this interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation, Far-Western assays, and two-hybrid assays showed that TIN2, but not POT1 or PIP1, interacts directly with TRF2. Furthermore, TIN2 was found to bind TRF1 and TRF2 simultaneously, showing that TIN2 can link these telomeric proteins. This connection appeared to stabilize TRF2 on the telomeres as the treatment of cells with TIN2 small interfering RNA resulted in a decreased presence of TRF2 and hRap1 at chromosome ends. The TIN2-mediated cooperative binding of TRF1 and TRF2 to telomeres has important implications for the mechanism of telomere length regulation and protection.

Pubmed ID: 15316005


  • Ye JZ
  • Donigian JR
  • van Overbeek M
  • Loayza D
  • Luo Y
  • Krutchinsky AN
  • Chait BT
  • de Lange T


The Journal of biological chemistry

Publication Data

November 5, 2004

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: GM49069
  • Agency: NCI NIH HHS, Id: K08CA93604
  • Agency: NCRR NIH HHS, Id: RR00862

Mesh Terms

  • Antigens, Surface
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Chromatography, Gel
  • DNA Damage
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Escherichia coli
  • Gene Deletion
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Telomere
  • Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1
  • Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • beta-Galactosidase