Literature search services are currently unavailable. During our hosting provider's UPS upgrade we experienced a hardware failure and are currently working to resolve the issue.

Preparing your results

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Physical and functional interaction of androgen receptor with calmodulin in prostate cancer cells.

Ca(2+) and calmodulin (CaM) play a critical role in proliferation and viability of a wide variety of cells, including prostate cancer cells. We examined two prostate cancer cell lines, androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3. Proliferation of LNCaP cells was six to eight times more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7) than were PC-3 cells. Because LNCaP cell proliferation is sensitive to stimulation by androgen, we assessed the physical and functional interaction between androgen receptor (AR) and CaM. We observed tight binding of AR to CaM when LNCaP cell extracts were subjected to CaM-affinity column chromatography. AR binding to CaM was Ca(2+)-dependent and was inhibited by pretreatment of the cell extracts with W-7. Using immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy, we demonstrated colocalization of AR and CaM in the nucleus of LNCaP cells. Furthermore, the functional relevance of AR-CaM interactions in intact cells was revealed by the observation that W-7 was as effective as Casodex, an antiandrogen, in blocking AR-regulated expression of prostate-specific antigen in LNCaP cells. AR seems to interact with CaM directly because purified human AR could bind to CaM-agarose, and CaM could be detected in AR-immunoprecipitate prepared from purified soluble proteins. These studies provide direct evidence for physical and functional interaction between AR and CaM and suggest the potential usefulness of CaM antagonists in blocking AR activity in prostate cancer.

Pubmed ID: 14695896


  • Cifuentes E
  • Mataraza JM
  • Yoshida BA
  • Menon M
  • Sacks DB
  • Barrack ER
  • Reddy GP


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Publication Data

January 13, 2004

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NCI NIH HHS, Id: CA93645
  • Agency: NIDDK NIH HHS, Id: DK57864

Mesh Terms

  • Calmodulin
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Extracts
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Chromatography, Affinity
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Sulfonamides