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Identification and characterization of Snapin as a ubiquitously expressed SNARE-binding protein that interacts with SNAP23 in non-neuronal cells.

Members of the SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) superfamily [syntaxins, VAMPs (vesicle-associated membrane proteins) and SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein-25)-related proteins] are required for intracellular membrane-fusion events in eukaryotes. In neurons, assembly of SNARE core complexes comprising the presynaptic membrane-associated SNAREs syntaxin 1 and SNAP25, and the vesicle-associated SNARE VAMP2, is necessary for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Several accessory factors have been described that associate with the synaptic SNAREs and modulate core complex assembly or mediate Ca2+ regulation. One such factor, Snapin, has been reported to be a brain-specific protein that interacts with SNAP25, and regulates association of the putative Ca2+-sensor synaptotagmin with the synaptic SNARE complex [Ilardi, Mochida and Sheng (1999) Nat. Neurosci. 2, 119-124]. Here we demonstrate that Snapin is expressed ubiquitously in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Furthermore, using protein-protein-interaction assays we show that Snapin interacts with SNAP23, the widely expressed homologue of SNAP25, and that the predicted C-terminal helical domain of Snapin contains the SNAP23-binding site. Subcellular localization experiments revealed that Snapin is a soluble protein that exists in both cytosolic and peripheral membrane-bound pools in adipocytes. Moreover, association of Snapin with the plasma membrane was detected in cells overexpressing a Snapin-green fluorescent protein fusion protein. Finally, we show that Snapin is able to form a ternary complex with SNAP23 and syntaxin 4, suggesting that it is a component of non-neuronal SNARE complexes. An important implication of our results is that Snapin is likely to perform a general role in SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion events in non-neuronal cells in addition to its participation in Ca2+-regulated neurosecretion.

Pubmed ID: 12877659


  • Buxton P
  • Zhang XM
  • Walsh B
  • Sriratana A
  • Schenberg I
  • Manickam E
  • Rowe T


The Biochemical journal

Publication Data

October 15, 2003

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • 3T3-L1 Cells
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Blotting, Northern
  • COS Cells
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cercopithecus aethiops
  • Gene Expression
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Protein Binding
  • Qb-SNARE Proteins
  • Qc-SNARE Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • SNARE Proteins
  • Syntaxin 1
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins